The quantum equation suggests that the Big Bang never happened and that the universe has no beginning

The cosmos may have existed forever, according to a revolutionary model that extends Einstein's theory of general relativity using quantum correction terms. By taking into consideration dark matter and energy, the model can concurrently address a number of concerns.

The cosmos is commonly regarded to be 13.8 billion years old, according to general relativity. At first, it was thought that all matter would condense into a single, infinitely dense point, or singularity. It wasn't until the "Big Bang" began to expand at this time that the universe truly began.

Despite the fact that the equations of general relativity directly and inescapably lead to the Big Bang singularity, some scientists find it troublesome since mathematics can only explain what occurred immediately after the singularity—not before or before it.

The principles of physics appear to be violated by the Big Bang singularity, which Ahmed Farag Ali of Benha University and Zewail Science and Technology City, both in Egypt, told is the most significant issue with general relativity.

In an article that was published in Physics Letters B, Ali and co-author Saurya Das of the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, demonstrated how their novel theory—in which the universe has no origin and no end—can resolve the Big Bang singularity.

The physicists emphasize that they don't apply their quantum correction terms arbitrarily in an effort to eliminate the Big Bang singularity. The majority of his work is inspired by theoretical physicist David Bohm, who is well known for his contributions to the philosophy of physics. Bohm started looking into alternatives to traditional geodesics, or the shortest path between two points on a curved surface, in the 1950s.

The equation was created in the 1950s by physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri at Presidency University in Calcutta, India. In their study, Ali and Das used these Bohmian trajectories in the equation. When Das attended that school in the 1990s, Raychaudhuri was also his instructor.

Ali and Das created the quantum-corrected Friedmann equations, which generalize the expansion and development of the universe (including the Big Bang) using the quantum-corrected Raychaudhuri equation. The model incorporates aspects of both quantum theory and general relativity, despite not being a true theory of quantum gravity. Furthermore, Ali and Das anticipate that their findings will stand up in the event that a complete theory of quantum gravity is developed.

No singularities or dark things

The new model does not foresee a "big crisis" singularity in addition to not anticipating a major Bang singularity. According to general relativity, the cosmos might start to contract before collapsing violently in on itself to revert to its original state of being an infinitely dense point.

In their study, Ali and Das show how a crucial distinction between Bohm trajectories and conventional geodesics prevents their model from experiencing singularities. Singularities are the places where classical geodesics converge and cross each other. Singularities do not exist in the equations because Bohm trajectories do not meet.

Scientists explain that, without the need for dark energy, quantum corrections can be thought of as both a radiation term and a constant cosmological term. The cosmos continues to have a limited size and an endless age due to these circumstances. Furthermore, the terms give predictions that closely resemble the cosmic density and cosmological constant as they are now observed.

New gravity particle

The model states that there is a quantum fluid at the center of the cosmos. Scientists hypothesize that gravitons, hypothetical massless particles that mediate the gravitational force, could make up this fluid. The existence of gravitons is regarded to be crucial to quantum gravity theory.

Further support for this model has been provided by Das and another colleague, Rajat Bhaduri of McMaster University in Canada, in a related work. They demonstrate that gravitons can create the Bose-Einstein condensate, which bears the names of both Einstein and Satyendranath Bose, a fellow Indian physicist.

Scientists are motivated to further examine this concept since it has the ability to explain dark matter and energy as well as the Big Bang singularity. They plan to revise their analysis in the future to account for modest inhomogeneous and anisotropic perturbations, but they don't anticipate that these changes will have a big impact on the outcomes.

It's gratifying to realize that such straightforward solutions have the ability to address so many issues at once, Das added.


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